title: Encrypted Debian GNU+Linux x-toc-enable: true ...
This guide is written for the Debian distribution, but it should also work for Devuan with the net installer. Other Debian based GNU+Linux distributions may also work, using these instructions.
This guide assumes that you are using the GNU GRUB bootloader as a coreboot
payload. In this configuration, GNU GRUB runs on bare metal instead of
relying on BIOS or UEFI. GNU GRUB has support for directly reading LUKS volumes
and it can directly boot your Linux kernel this way. With GRUB already in the
boot flash, this means that your
/boot/ directory (containing your Linux
kernel) can be fully encrypted. The same cannot be said for most other systems,
and no other coreboot payload provides this functionality.
Libreboot ROM images are provided, which will either boot the system in classic text mode, or with a framebuffer implemented by coreboot for video display initialization (not to be confused with int10h VGA modes).
Text mode is the default video mode on most x86 platforms, using
functions. It's an interrupt service that text-mode applications use, a hangover
from the days of CS/M and DOS. In this mode, no framebuffer exists and Libreboot
currently does not implement VGA modes. The Debian net installer will attempt
to use VGA modes that most implementations of INT 10H provide. Therefore, you
must force Debian's installation program to operate in text mode.
To boot the Debian net installer, make sure to specify
fb=false on the linux
kernel parameters in GRUB. This will boot the installer in text mode instead
of using a framebuffer. By default, the netinstaller will try to switch to a
high resolution framebuffer. Due to lack of INT10H video BIOS services and mode
switching support in
libgfxinit, this will fail.
In some setups, you don't need this. For example, if you're using an add-on PCIe GPU on a desktop/server board (e.g. ASUS KGPE-D16/KCMA-D8, Gigabyte GA-G41M-ES2L), you would use SeaBIOS payload with text-mode startup, but the Video BIOS option ROM in your add-on graphics card would be executed, and it would presumably handle INT10H VGA modes.
Libreboot on x86 can use the GNU GRUB bootloader as a bare metal coreboot payload if you wish, which means that the GRUB configuration file (where your GRUB menu comes from) is stored directly alongside Libreboot and its GRUB payload executable, inside the flash chip. In context, this means that installing distributions and managing them is handled slightly differently compared to traditional BIOS or UEFI systems.
On most systems, the
/boot/ partition has to be left unencrypted while
the others are encrypted. This is so that GRUB, and therefore the
kernel, can be loaded and executed since the firmware can't open a LUKS
volume. Not so with Libreboot! Since GRUB is already included directly
as a payload, even
/boot/ can be encrypted. This protects /boot from
tampering by someone with physical access to the system.
This guide is written for Debian net installer. You can download the ISO from the homepage on debian.org. Use this on the GRUB terminal to boot it from USB (for 64-bit Intel or AMD):
set root='usb0' linux /install.amd/vmlinuz initrd /install.amd/initrd.gz boot
If you are on a 32-bit system (e.g. X60):
set root='usb0' linux /install.386/vmlinuz initrd /install.386/initrd.gz boot
This guide shows how to create a boot USB drive with the Debian ISO image.
This guide is only for the GRUB payload. If you use the depthcharge payload, ignore this section entirely.
Note: on some thinkpads, a faulty DVD drive can cause the cryptomount -a step during boot to fail. If this happens to you, try removing the drive.
Set a strong user password (lots of lowercase/uppercase, numbers and symbols).
Use of the diceware method is recommended, for generating secure passphrases (instead of passwords).
When the installer asks you to set up encryption (ecryptfs) for your home directory, select 'Yes' if you want to: LUKS is already secure and performs well. Having ecryptfs on top of it will add noticeable performance penalty, for little security gain in most use cases. This is therefore optional, and not recommended. Choose 'no'.
Your user password should be different from the LUKS password which you will set later on. Your LUKS password should, like the user password, be secure.
Choose 'Manual' partitioning:
Single large partition. The following are mostly defaults:
Select 'configure encrypted volumes'
Select encrypted space:
Configure the logical volume manager:
Create volume group:
matrix(use this exact name)
Create logical volume
matrix(use this exact name)
rootvol(use this exact name)
Create logical volume
matrix(use this exact name)
swap(user this exact name)
Now you are back at the main partitioning screen. You will simply set mountpoints and filesystems to use.
Installation will ask what kernel you want to use. linux-generic is fine, but you can choose whatever you want here.
For Debian, use the MATE option, or one of the others if you want. The Libreboot project recommends MATE, unless you're saavy enough to choose something else.
If you want debian-testing, then you should only select barebones
options here and change the entries in /etc/apt/sources.list after
install to point to the new distro, and then run
apt-get update and
apt-get dist-upgrade as root, then reboot and run
root. This is to avoid downloading large packages twice.
NOTE: If you want the latest up to date version of the Linux kernel, Debian's kernel is sometimes outdated, even in the testing distro. You might consider using this repository instead, which contains the most up to date versions of the Linux kernel. These kernels are also deblobbed, like Debian's kernels, so you can be sure that no binary blobs are present.
If asked, choose
No Configuration here (or maybe you want to
select something else. It's up to you.)
No, and then it will still ask you what HDD to install GRUB on. Select
your HDD/SSD from the automatically generated list.
The installer will provide GRUB on your HDD/SSD, but not try to install it to
an MBR section. However, the
/boot/grub/grub.cfg on your system will be
maintained automatically by
apt-get when handling kernel packages.
Just say 'Yes'.
At this point, your Debian system is installed. Shut down when the installer tells you to.
If you didn't install GRUB during the net installation process, don't worry. You can boot your installed system manually, using the terminal in GRUB on your boot flash (the version that Libreboot gives you).
At this point, you will have finished the installation. At your GRUB payload, press C to get to reach the GRUB terminal and enter these commands:
cryptomount -a set root='lvm/matrix-rootvol' linux /vmlinuz root=/dev/mapper/matrix-rootvol cryptdevice=/dev/mapper/matrix-rootvol:root initrd /initrd.img boot
If you did install GRUB, ignore the above. Just select the default
Operating System menu option and it should fully boot into your system.
When you type your encryption passphrase in GRUB, it will seem like the process has stalled. The same will be true when you load your linux kernel in Debian. Just be patient and it will boot. If you see errors, just press enter to skip them until you see the Debian GRUB menu.
If you didn't encrypt your home directory, then you can safely ignore this section.
Immediately after logging in, do that:
This will be needed in the future if you ever need to recover your home directory from another system, so write it down and keep the note somewhere secret. Ideally, you should memorize it and then burn the note (or not even write it down, and memorize it still)>
LUKSv2 is fully supported nowadays, in recent Libreboot releases. The old Libreboot release, version 20160907 (and earlier releases), did not support LUKSv2 in GNU GRUB. By default, modern Debian distributions will use LUKSv2.
You do not need to downgrade LUKSv2 to v1, but you shouldn't use any of the special features that LUKSv2 offers. Basically, the partitioning should be done exactly the same way as with LUKSv1 (but with newer encryption/hashing algorithms used by LUKSv2 partitions). This is because of limitations in the implementation of LUKSv2 in GNU GRUB. GRUB uses its own custom implementation, instead of directly adapting the Linux kernel implementation.
/boot/grub/grub.cfg already exists, ignore this step.
Now you need to set it up so that the system will automatically boot, without having to type a bunch of commands.
Install grub-coreboot if not already installed:
apt-get install grub-coreboot
Modify or add following lines to /etc/default/grub
Copy fonts/backgrounds to /boot/grub and generate grub.cfg using following command:
Refer to this guide for further guidance on hardening your GRUB configuration, for security purposes.
A user reported issues when booting with a docking station attached on
an X200, while decrypting the disk in GRUB. The error
timed out was observed. The workaround was to remove the docking
station or remove the CD/DVD drive.
Here is the information on that DVD drive, which said user had:
"sudo wodim -prcap" shows information about the drive: Device was not specified. Trying to find an appropriate drive... Detected CD-R drive: /dev/sr0 Using /dev/cdrom of unknown capabilities Device type : Removable CD-ROM Version : 5 Response Format: 2 Capabilities : Vendor_info : 'HL-DT-ST' Identification : 'DVDRAM GU10N ' Revision : 'MX05' Device seems to be: Generic mmc2 DVD-R/DVD-RW. Drive capabilities, per MMC-3 page 2A: Does read CD-R media Does write CD-R media Does read CD-RW media Does write CD-RW media Does read DVD-ROM media Does read DVD-R media Does write DVD-R media Does read DVD-RAM media Does write DVD-RAM media Does support test writing Does read Mode 2 Form 1 blocks Does read Mode 2 Form 2 blocks Does read digital audio blocks Does restart non-streamed digital audio reads accurately Does support Buffer-Underrun-Free recording Does read multi-session CDs Does read fixed-packet CD media using Method 2 Does not read CD bar code Does not read R-W subcode information Does read raw P-W subcode data from lead in Does return CD media catalog number Does return CD ISRC information Does support C2 error pointers Does not deliver composite A/V data Does play audio CDs Number of volume control levels: 256 Does support individual volume control setting for each channel Does support independent mute setting for each channel Does not support digital output on port 1 Does not support digital output on port 2 Loading mechanism type: tray Does support ejection of CD via START/STOP command Does not lock media on power up via prevent jumper Does allow media to be locked in the drive via PREVENT/ALLOW command Is not currently in a media-locked state Does not support changing side of disk Does not have load-empty-slot-in-changer feature Does not support Individual Disk Present feature Maximum read speed: 4234 kB/s (CD 24x, DVD 3x) Current read speed: 4234 kB/s (CD 24x, DVD 3x) Maximum write speed: 4234 kB/s (CD 24x, DVD 3x) Current write speed: 4234 kB/s (CD 24x, DVD 3x) Rotational control selected: CLV/PCAV Buffer size in KB: 1024 Copy management revision supported: 1 Number of supported write speeds: 4 Write speed # 0: 4234 kB/s CLV/PCAV (CD 24x, DVD 3x) Write speed # 1: 2822 kB/s CLV/PCAV (CD 16x, DVD 2x) Write speed # 2: 1764 kB/s CLV/PCAV (CD 10x, DVD 1x) Write speed # 3: 706 kB/s CLV/PCAV (CD 4x, DVD 0x) Supported CD-RW media types according to MMC-4 feature 0x37: Does write multi speed CD-RW media Does write high speed CD-RW media Does write ultra high speed CD-RW media Does not write ultra high speed+ CD-RW media