1. GNU Free Documentation License
  2. Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
  3. Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  4. <>
  5. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
  6. of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  7. 0. PREAMBLE
  8. The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
  9. functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
  10. assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
  11. with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
  12. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
  13. to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
  14. for modifications made by others.
  15. This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
  16. works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
  17. complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
  18. license designed for free software.
  19. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
  20. software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
  21. program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
  22. software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
  23. it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
  24. whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
  25. principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
  27. This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
  28. contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
  29. distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
  30. world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
  31. work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,
  32. refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
  33. licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you
  34. copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
  35. under copyright law.
  36. A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
  37. Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
  38. modifications and/or translated into another language.
  39. A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
  40. the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
  41. publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
  42. subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
  43. directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in
  44. part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
  45. any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
  46. connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
  47. commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
  48. them.
  49. The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
  50. are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
  51. that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
  52. section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
  53. allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
  54. Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
  55. Sections then there are none.
  56. The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
  57. as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
  58. the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
  59. be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
  60. A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
  61. represented in a format whose specification is available to the
  62. general public, that is suitable for revising the document
  63. straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
  64. pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
  65. drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
  66. for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
  67. to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
  68. format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
  69. or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
  70. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
  71. of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
  72. Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
  73. ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
  74. or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
  75. HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of
  76. transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
  77. include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
  78. proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
  79. processing tools are not generally available, and the
  80. machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
  81. processors for output purposes only.
  82. The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
  83. plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
  84. this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
  85. formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
  86. the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
  87. preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
  88. The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of
  89. the Document to the public.
  90. A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
  91. title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
  92. text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
  93. specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
  94. "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"
  95. of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
  96. section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
  97. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
  98. states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
  99. Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
  100. License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
  101. implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
  102. no effect on the meaning of this License.
  104. You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
  105. commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
  106. copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
  107. to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no
  108. other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
  109. technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
  110. copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
  111. compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
  112. number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
  113. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
  114. you may publicly display copies.
  116. If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
  117. printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
  118. Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
  119. copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
  120. Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
  121. the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
  122. you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
  123. the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
  124. visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
  125. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
  126. the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
  127. as verbatim copying in other respects.
  128. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
  129. legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
  130. reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
  131. pages.
  132. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
  133. more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
  134. copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
  135. a computer-network location from which the general network-using
  136. public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
  137. a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
  138. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
  139. when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
  140. that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
  141. location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
  142. Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
  143. edition to the public.
  144. It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
  145. Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
  146. give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
  147. Document.
  149. You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
  150. the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
  151. the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
  152. Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
  153. and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
  154. of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
  155. A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
  156. from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
  157. (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
  158. of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
  159. if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
  160. B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
  161. responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
  162. Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
  163. Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
  164. unless they release you from this requirement.
  165. C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
  166. Modified Version, as the publisher.
  167. D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
  168. E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
  169. adjacent to the other copyright notices.
  170. F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
  171. giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
  172. terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
  173. G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
  174. and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
  175. H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
  176. I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
  177. to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
  178. publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
  179. there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
  180. stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
  181. given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
  182. Version as stated in the previous sentence.
  183. J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
  184. public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
  185. the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
  186. it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
  187. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
  188. least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
  189. publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
  190. K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
  191. Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
  192. the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
  193. and/or dedications given therein.
  194. L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
  195. unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
  196. or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
  197. M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
  198. may not be included in the Modified Version.
  199. N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
  200. or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
  201. O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
  202. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
  203. appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
  204. copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
  205. of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
  206. list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
  207. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
  208. You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
  209. nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
  210. parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
  211. been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
  212. standard.
  213. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
  214. passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
  215. of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
  216. Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
  217. through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
  218. includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
  219. by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
  220. you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
  221. permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
  222. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
  223. give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
  224. imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
  226. You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
  227. License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
  228. versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
  229. Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
  230. list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
  231. license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
  232. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
  233. multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
  234. copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
  235. different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
  236. adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
  237. author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
  238. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
  239. Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
  240. In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
  241. in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
  242. "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
  243. and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
  244. Entitled "Endorsements".
  246. You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
  247. documents released under this License, and replace the individual
  248. copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
  249. that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules
  250. of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
  251. other respects.
  252. You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
  253. distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
  254. copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
  255. License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
  256. document.
  258. A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
  259. and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
  260. distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
  261. resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
  262. of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
  263. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
  264. apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
  265. derivative works of the Document.
  266. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
  267. copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
  268. the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
  269. covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
  270. electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
  271. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
  272. aggregate.
  274. Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
  275. distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
  276. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
  277. permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
  278. translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
  279. original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
  280. translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
  281. Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
  282. the original English version of this License and the original versions
  283. of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
  284. the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
  285. or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
  286. If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
  287. "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
  288. its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
  289. title.
  291. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
  292. except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
  293. otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and
  294. will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
  295. However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license
  296. from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally,
  297. unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally
  298. terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder
  299. fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to
  300. 60 days after the cessation.
  301. Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
  302. reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
  303. violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
  304. received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
  305. copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
  306. your receipt of the notice.
  307. Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
  308. licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
  309. this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
  310. reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does
  311. not give you any rights to use it.
  313. The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
  314. GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions
  315. will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
  316. detail to address new problems or concerns. See
  318. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
  319. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
  320. License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
  321. following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
  322. of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
  323. Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
  324. number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
  325. as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document
  326. specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this
  327. License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a
  328. version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the
  329. Document.
  330. 11. RELICENSING
  331. "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
  332. World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
  333. provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A
  334. public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A
  335. "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site
  336. means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
  337. "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
  338. license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
  339. corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
  340. California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
  341. published by that same organization.
  342. "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in
  343. part, as part of another Document.
  344. An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
  345. License, and if all works that were first published under this License
  346. somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or
  347. in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and
  348. (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
  349. The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site
  350. under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009,
  351. provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
  352. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
  353. To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
  354. the License in the document and put the following copyright and
  355. license notices just after the title page:
  356. Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
  357. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  358. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
  359. or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  360. with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
  361. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
  362. Free Documentation License".
  363. If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
  364. replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
  365. with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
  366. Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
  367. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
  368. combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
  369. situation.
  370. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
  371. recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
  372. free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
  373. to permit their use in free software.