UnicodeData File Format.html 47 KB

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  9. <h1>UnicodeData File Format<br>
  10. Version 3.0.0</h1>
  11. <table BORDER="1" CELLSPACING="2" CELLPADDING="0" HEIGHT="87" WIDTH="100%">
  12. <tr>
  13. <td VALIGN="TOP" width="144">Revision</td>
  14. <td VALIGN="TOP">3.0.0</td>
  15. </tr>
  16. <tr>
  17. <td VALIGN="TOP" width="144">Authors</td>
  18. <td VALIGN="TOP">Mark Davis and Ken Whistler</td>
  19. </tr>
  20. <tr>
  21. <td VALIGN="TOP" width="144">Date</td>
  22. <td VALIGN="TOP">1999-09-12</td>
  23. </tr>
  24. <tr>
  25. <td VALIGN="TOP" width="144">This Version</td>
  26. <td VALIGN="TOP"><a href="ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/3.0-Update/UnicodeData-3.0.0.html">ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/3.0-Update/UnicodeData-3.0.0.html</a></td>
  27. </tr>
  28. <tr>
  29. <td VALIGN="TOP" width="144">Previous Version</td>
  30. <td VALIGN="TOP">n/a</td>
  31. </tr>
  32. <tr>
  33. <td VALIGN="TOP" width="144">Latest Version</td>
  34. <td VALIGN="TOP"><a href="ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/3.0-Update/UnicodeData-3.0.0.html">ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/3.0-Update/UnicodeData-3.0.0.html</a></td>
  35. </tr>
  36. </table>
  37. <p align="center">Copyright © 1995-1999 Unicode, Inc. All Rights reserved.<br>
  38. <i>For more information, including Disclamer and Limitations, see <a HREF="UnicodeCharacterDatabase-3.0.0.html">UnicodeCharacterDatabase-3.0.0.html</a> </i></p>
  39. <p>This document describes the format of the UnicodeData.txt file, which is one of the
  40. files in the Unicode Character Database. The document is divided into the following
  41. sections:
  42. <ul>
  43. <li><a HREF="#Field Formats">Field Formats</a> <ul>
  44. <li><a HREF="#General Category">General Category</a> </li>
  45. <li><a HREF="#Bidirectional Category">Bidirectional Category</a> </li>
  46. <li><a HREF="#Character Decomposition">Character Decomposition Mapping</a> </li>
  47. <li><a HREF="#Canonical Combining Classes">Canonical Combining Classes</a> </li>
  48. <li><a HREF="#Decompositions and Normalization">Decompositions and Normalization</a> </li>
  49. <li><a HREF="#Case Mappings">Case Mappings</a> </li>
  50. </ul>
  51. </li>
  52. <li><a HREF="#Property Invariants">Property Invariants</a> </li>
  53. <li><a HREF="#Modification History">Modification History</a> </li>
  54. </ul>
  55. <p><b>Warning: </b>the information in this file does not completely describe the use and
  56. interpretation of Unicode character properties and behavior. It must be used in
  57. conjunction with the data in the other files in the Unicode Character Database, and relies
  58. on the notation and definitions supplied in <i><a href="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions/Unicode3.0.html"> The Unicode
  59. Standard</a></i>. All chapter references
  60. are to Version 3.0 of the standard.</p>
  61. <h2><a NAME="Field Formats"></a>Field Formats</h2>
  62. <p>The file consists of lines containing fields terminated by semicolons. Each line
  63. represents the data for one encoded character in the Unicode Standard. Every encoded
  64. character has a data entry, with the exception of certain special ranges, as detailed
  65. below.
  66. <ul>
  67. <li>There are six special ranges of characters that are represented only by their start and
  68. end characters, since the properties in the file are uniform, except for code values
  69. (which are all sequential and assigned). </li>
  70. <li>The names of CJK ideograph characters and the names and decompositions of Hangul
  71. syllable characters are algorithmically derivable. (See the Unicode Standard and <a
  72. HREF="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr15/">Unicode Technical Report #15</a> for
  73. more information). </li>
  74. <li>Surrogate code values and private use characters have no names. </li>
  75. <li>The Private Use character outside of the BMP (U+F0000..U+FFFFD, U+100000..U+10FFFD) are
  76. not listed. These correspond to surrogate pairs where the first surrogate is in the High
  77. Surrogate Private Use section. </li>
  78. </ul>
  79. <p>The exact ranges represented by start and end characters are:
  80. <ul>
  81. <li>CJK Ideographs Extension A (U+3400 - U+4DB5) </li>
  82. <li>CJK Ideographs (U+4E00 - U+9FA5) </li>
  83. <li>Hangul Syllables (U+AC00 - U+D7A3) </li>
  84. <li>Non-Private Use High Surrogates (U+D800 - U+DB7F) </li>
  85. <li>Private Use High Surrogates (U+DB80 - U+DBFF) </li>
  86. <li>Low Surrogates (U+DC00 - U+DFFF) </li>
  87. <li>The Private Use Area (U+E000 - U+F8FF) </li>
  88. </ul>
  89. <p>The following table describes the format and meaning of each field in a data entry in
  90. the UnicodeData file. Fields which contain normative information are so indicated.</p>
  91. <table BORDER="1" CELLSPACING="2" CELLPADDING="2">
  92. <tr>
  93. <th VALIGN="top" ALIGN="LEFT"><p ALIGN="LEFT">Field</th>
  94. <th VALIGN="top" ALIGN="LEFT"><p ALIGN="LEFT">Name</th>
  95. <th VALIGN="top" ALIGN="LEFT"><p ALIGN="LEFT">Status</th>
  96. <th VALIGN="top" ALIGN="LEFT"><p ALIGN="LEFT">Explanation</th>
  97. </tr>
  98. <tr>
  99. <th VALIGN="top">0</th>
  100. <td VALIGN="top">Code value</td>
  101. <td VALIGN="top">normative</td>
  102. <td VALIGN="top">Code value in 4-digit hexadecimal format.</td>
  103. </tr>
  104. <tr>
  105. <th VALIGN="top">1</th>
  106. <td VALIGN="top">Character name</td>
  107. <td VALIGN="top">normative</td>
  108. <td VALIGN="top">These names match exactly the names published in Chapter 14 of the
  109. Unicode Standard, Version 3.0.</td>
  110. </tr>
  111. <tr>
  112. <th VALIGN="top">2</th>
  113. <td VALIGN="top"><a HREF="#General Category">General Category</a> </td>
  114. <td VALIGN="top">normative / informative<br>
  115. (see below)</td>
  116. <td VALIGN="top">This is a useful breakdown into various &quot;character types&quot; which
  117. can be used as a default categorization in implementations. See below for a brief
  118. explanation.</td>
  119. </tr>
  120. <tr>
  121. <th VALIGN="top">3</th>
  122. <td VALIGN="top"><a HREF="#Canonical Combining Classes">Canonical Combining Classes</a> </td>
  123. <td VALIGN="top">normative</td>
  124. <td VALIGN="top">The classes used for the Canonical Ordering Algorithm in the Unicode
  125. Standard. These classes are also printed in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard.</td>
  126. </tr>
  127. <tr>
  128. <th VALIGN="top">4</th>
  129. <td VALIGN="top"><a HREF="#Bidirectional Category">Bidirectional Category</a> </td>
  130. <td VALIGN="top">normative</td>
  131. <td VALIGN="top">See the list below for an explanation of the abbreviations used in this
  132. field. These are the categories required by the Bidirectional Behavior Algorithm in the
  133. Unicode Standard. These categories are summarized in Chapter 3 of the Unicode Standard.</td>
  134. </tr>
  135. <tr>
  136. <th VALIGN="top">5</th>
  137. <td VALIGN="top"><a HREF="#Character Decomposition">Character Decomposition
  138. Mapping</a></td>
  139. <td VALIGN="top">normative</td>
  140. <td VALIGN="top">In the Unicode Standard, not all of the mappings are full (maximal)
  141. decompositions. Recursive application of look-up for decompositions will, in all cases,
  142. lead to a maximal decomposition. The decomposition mappings match exactly the
  143. decomposition mappings published with the character names in the Unicode Standard.</td>
  144. </tr>
  145. <tr>
  146. <th VALIGN="top">6</th>
  147. <td VALIGN="top">Decimal digit value</td>
  148. <td VALIGN="top">normative</td>
  149. <td VALIGN="top">This is a numeric field. If the character has the decimal digit property,
  150. as specified in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard, the value of that digit is represented
  151. with an integer value in this field</td>
  152. </tr>
  153. <tr>
  154. <th VALIGN="top">7</th>
  155. <td VALIGN="top">Digit value</td>
  156. <td VALIGN="top">normative</td>
  157. <td VALIGN="top">This is a numeric field. If the character represents a digit, not
  158. necessarily a decimal digit, the value is here. This covers digits which do not form
  159. decimal radix forms, such as the compatibility superscript digits</td>
  160. </tr>
  161. <tr>
  162. <th VALIGN="top">8</th>
  163. <td VALIGN="top">Numeric value</td>
  164. <td VALIGN="top">normative</td>
  165. <td VALIGN="top">This is a numeric field. If the character has the numeric property, as
  166. specified in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard, the value of that character is represented
  167. with an integer or rational number in this field. This includes fractions as, e.g.,
  168. &quot;1/5&quot; for U+2155 VULGAR FRACTION ONE FIFTH Also included are numerical values
  169. for compatibility characters such as circled numbers.</td>
  170. </tr>
  171. <tr>
  172. <th VALIGN="top">8</th>
  173. <td VALIGN="top">Mirrored</td>
  174. <td VALIGN="top">normative</td>
  175. <td VALIGN="top">If the character has been identified as a &quot;mirrored&quot; character
  176. in bidirectional text, this field has the value &quot;Y&quot;; otherwise &quot;N&quot;.
  177. The list of mirrored characters is also printed in Chapter 4 of the Unicode Standard.</td>
  178. </tr>
  179. <tr>
  180. <th VALIGN="top">10</th>
  181. <td VALIGN="top">Unicode 1.0 Name</td>
  182. <td VALIGN="top">informative</td>
  183. <td VALIGN="top">This is the old name as published in Unicode 1.0. This name is only
  184. provided when it is significantly different from the Unicode 3.0 name for the character.</td>
  185. </tr>
  186. <tr>
  187. <th VALIGN="top">11</th>
  188. <td VALIGN="top">10646 comment field</td>
  189. <td VALIGN="top">informative</td>
  190. <td VALIGN="top">This is the ISO 10646 comment field. It is in parantheses in the 10646
  191. names list.</td>
  192. </tr>
  193. <tr>
  194. <th VALIGN="top">12</th>
  195. <td VALIGN="top"><a HREF="#Case Mappings">Uppercase Mapping</a></td>
  196. <td VALIGN="top">informative</td>
  197. <td VALIGN="top">Upper case equivalent mapping. If a character is part of an alphabet with
  198. case distinctions, and has an upper case equivalent, then the upper case equivalent is in
  199. this field. See the explanation below on case distinctions. These mappings are always
  200. one-to-one, not one-to-many or many-to-one. This field is informative.</td>
  201. </tr>
  202. <tr>
  203. <th VALIGN="top">13</th>
  204. <td VALIGN="top"><a HREF="#Case Mappings">Lowercase Mapping</a></td>
  205. <td VALIGN="top">informative</td>
  206. <td VALIGN="top">Similar to Uppercase mapping</td>
  207. </tr>
  208. <tr>
  209. <th VALIGN="top">14</th>
  210. <td VALIGN="top"><a HREF="#Case Mappings">Titlecase Mapping</a></td>
  211. <td VALIGN="top">informative</td>
  212. <td VALIGN="top">Similar to Uppercase mapping</td>
  213. </tr>
  214. </table>
  215. <h3><a NAME="General Category"></a>General Category</h3>
  216. <p>The values in this field are abbreviations for the following. Some of the values are
  217. normative, and some are informative. For more information, see the Unicode Standard.</p>
  218. <p><b>Note:</b> the standard does not assign information to control characters (except for
  219. certain cases in the Bidirectional Algorithm). Implementations will generally also assign
  220. categories to certain control characters, notably CR and LF, according to platform
  221. conventions.</p>
  222. <h4>Normative Categories</h4>
  223. <table BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="2" CELLPADDING="0">
  224. <tr>
  225. <th><p ALIGN="LEFT">Abbr.</th>
  226. <th><p ALIGN="LEFT">Description</th>
  227. </tr>
  228. <tr>
  229. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Lu</td>
  230. <td>Letter, Uppercase</td>
  231. </tr>
  232. <tr>
  233. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Ll</td>
  234. <td>Letter, Lowercase</td>
  235. </tr>
  236. <tr>
  237. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Lt</td>
  238. <td>Letter, Titlecase</td>
  239. </tr>
  240. <tr>
  241. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Mn</td>
  242. <td>Mark, Non-Spacing</td>
  243. </tr>
  244. <tr>
  245. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Mc</td>
  246. <td>Mark, Spacing Combining</td>
  247. </tr>
  248. <tr>
  249. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Me</td>
  250. <td>Mark, Enclosing</td>
  251. </tr>
  252. <tr>
  253. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Nd</td>
  254. <td>Number, Decimal Digit</td>
  255. </tr>
  256. <tr>
  257. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Nl</td>
  258. <td>Number, Letter</td>
  259. </tr>
  260. <tr>
  261. <td ALIGN="CENTER">No</td>
  262. <td>Number, Other</td>
  263. </tr>
  264. <tr>
  265. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Zs</td>
  266. <td>Separator, Space</td>
  267. </tr>
  268. <tr>
  269. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Zl</td>
  270. <td>Separator, Line</td>
  271. </tr>
  272. <tr>
  273. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Zp</td>
  274. <td>Separator, Paragraph</td>
  275. </tr>
  276. <tr>
  277. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Cc</td>
  278. <td>Other, Control</td>
  279. </tr>
  280. <tr>
  281. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Cf</td>
  282. <td>Other, Format</td>
  283. </tr>
  284. <tr>
  285. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Cs</td>
  286. <td>Other, Surrogate</td>
  287. </tr>
  288. <tr>
  289. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Co</td>
  290. <td>Other, Private Use</td>
  291. </tr>
  292. <tr>
  293. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Cn</td>
  294. <td>Other, Not Assigned (no characters in the file have this property)</td>
  295. </tr>
  296. </table>
  297. <h4>Informative Categories</h4>
  298. <table BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="2" CELLPADDING="0">
  299. <tr>
  300. <th><p ALIGN="LEFT">Abbr.</th>
  301. <th><p ALIGN="LEFT">Description</th>
  302. </tr>
  303. <tr>
  304. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Lm</td>
  305. <td>Letter, Modifier</td>
  306. </tr>
  307. <tr>
  308. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Lo</td>
  309. <td>Letter, Other</td>
  310. </tr>
  311. <tr>
  312. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Pc</td>
  313. <td>Punctuation, Connector</td>
  314. </tr>
  315. <tr>
  316. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Pd</td>
  317. <td>Punctuation, Dash</td>
  318. </tr>
  319. <tr>
  320. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Ps</td>
  321. <td>Punctuation, Open</td>
  322. </tr>
  323. <tr>
  324. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Pe</td>
  325. <td>Punctuation, Close</td>
  326. </tr>
  327. <tr>
  328. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Pi</td>
  329. <td>Punctuation, Initial quote (may behave like Ps or Pe depending on usage)</td>
  330. </tr>
  331. <tr>
  332. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Pf</td>
  333. <td>Punctuation, Final quote (may behave like Ps or Pe depending on usage)</td>
  334. </tr>
  335. <tr>
  336. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Po</td>
  337. <td>Punctuation, Other</td>
  338. </tr>
  339. <tr>
  340. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Sm</td>
  341. <td>Symbol, Math</td>
  342. </tr>
  343. <tr>
  344. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Sc</td>
  345. <td>Symbol, Currency</td>
  346. </tr>
  347. <tr>
  348. <td ALIGN="CENTER">Sk</td>
  349. <td>Symbol, Modifier</td>
  350. </tr>
  351. <tr>
  352. <td ALIGN="CENTER">So</td>
  353. <td>Symbol, Other</td>
  354. </tr>
  355. </table>
  356. <h3><a NAME="Bidirectional Category"></a>Bidirectional Category</h3>
  357. <p>Please refer to Chapter 3 for an explanation of the algorithm for Bidirectional
  358. Behavior and an explanation of the significance of these categories. An up-to-date version
  359. can be found on <a HREF="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr9/">Unicode Technical
  360. Report #9: The Bidirectional Algorithm</a>. These values are normative.</p>
  361. <table BORDER="0" CELLPADDING="2">
  362. <tr>
  363. <th VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT"><p ALIGN="LEFT">Type</th>
  364. <th VALIGN="TOP" ALIGN="LEFT"><p ALIGN="LEFT">Description</th>
  365. </tr>
  366. <tr>
  367. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>L</b></td>
  368. <td VALIGN="TOP">Left-to-Right</td>
  369. </tr>
  370. <tr>
  371. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>LRE</b></td>
  372. <td VALIGN="TOP">Left-to-Right Embedding</td>
  373. </tr>
  374. <tr>
  375. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>LRO</b></td>
  376. <td VALIGN="TOP">Left-to-Right Override</td>
  377. </tr>
  378. <tr>
  379. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>R</b></td>
  380. <td VALIGN="TOP">Right-to-Left</td>
  381. </tr>
  382. <tr>
  383. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>AL</b></td>
  384. <td VALIGN="TOP">Right-to-Left Arabic</td>
  385. </tr>
  386. <tr>
  387. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>RLE</b></td>
  388. <td VALIGN="TOP">Right-to-Left Embedding</td>
  389. </tr>
  390. <tr>
  391. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>RLO</b></td>
  392. <td VALIGN="TOP">Right-to-Left Override</td>
  393. </tr>
  394. <tr>
  395. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>PDF</b></td>
  396. <td VALIGN="TOP">Pop Directional Format</td>
  397. </tr>
  398. <tr>
  399. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>EN</b></td>
  400. <td VALIGN="TOP">European Number</td>
  401. </tr>
  402. <tr>
  403. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>ES</b></td>
  404. <td VALIGN="TOP">European Number Separator</td>
  405. </tr>
  406. <tr>
  407. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>ET</b></td>
  408. <td VALIGN="TOP">European Number Terminator</td>
  409. </tr>
  410. <tr>
  411. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>AN</b></td>
  412. <td VALIGN="TOP">Arabic Number</td>
  413. </tr>
  414. <tr>
  415. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>CS</b></td>
  416. <td VALIGN="TOP">Common Number Separator</td>
  417. </tr>
  418. <tr>
  419. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>NSM</b></td>
  420. <td VALIGN="TOP">Non-Spacing Mark</td>
  421. </tr>
  422. <tr>
  423. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>BN</b></td>
  424. <td VALIGN="TOP">Boundary Neutral</td>
  425. </tr>
  426. <tr>
  427. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>B</b></td>
  428. <td VALIGN="TOP">Paragraph Separator</td>
  429. </tr>
  430. <tr>
  431. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>S</b></td>
  432. <td VALIGN="TOP">Segment Separator</td>
  433. </tr>
  434. <tr>
  435. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>WS</b></td>
  436. <td VALIGN="TOP">Whitespace</td>
  437. </tr>
  438. <tr>
  439. <td VALIGN="TOP"><b>ON</b></td>
  440. <td VALIGN="TOP">Other Neutrals</td>
  441. </tr>
  442. </table>
  443. <h3><a NAME="Character Decomposition"></a>Character Decomposition Mapping</h3>
  444. <p>The decomposition is a normative property of a character. The tags supplied with
  445. certain decomposition mappings generally indicate formatting information. Where no such
  446. tag is given, the mapping is designated as canonical. Conversely, the presence of a
  447. formatting tag also indicates that the mapping is a compatibility mapping and not a
  448. canonical mapping. In the absence of other formatting information in a compatibility
  449. mapping, the tag is used to distinguish it from canonical mappings.</p>
  450. <p>In some instances a canonical mapping or a compatibility mapping may consist of a
  451. single character. For a canonical mapping, this indicates that the character is a
  452. canonical equivalent of another single character. For a compatibility mapping, this
  453. indicates that the character is a compatibility equivalent of another single character.
  454. The compatibility formatting tags used are:</p>
  455. <table BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="2" CELLPADDING="0">
  456. <tr>
  457. <th>Tag</th>
  458. <th><p ALIGN="LEFT">Description</th>
  459. </tr>
  460. <tr>
  461. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;font&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  462. <td>A font variant (e.g. a blackletter form).</td>
  463. </tr>
  464. <tr>
  465. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;noBreak&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  466. <td>A no-break version of a space or hyphen.</td>
  467. </tr>
  468. <tr>
  469. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;initial&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  470. <td>An initial presentation form (Arabic).</td>
  471. </tr>
  472. <tr>
  473. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;medial&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  474. <td>A medial presentation form (Arabic).</td>
  475. </tr>
  476. <tr>
  477. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;final&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  478. <td>A final presentation form (Arabic).</td>
  479. </tr>
  480. <tr>
  481. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;isolated&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  482. <td>An isolated presentation form (Arabic).</td>
  483. </tr>
  484. <tr>
  485. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;circle&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  486. <td>An encircled form.</td>
  487. </tr>
  488. <tr>
  489. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;super&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  490. <td>A superscript form.</td>
  491. </tr>
  492. <tr>
  493. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;sub&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  494. <td>A subscript form.</td>
  495. </tr>
  496. <tr>
  497. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;vertical&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  498. <td>A vertical layout presentation form.</td>
  499. </tr>
  500. <tr>
  501. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;wide&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  502. <td>A wide (or zenkaku) compatibility character.</td>
  503. </tr>
  504. <tr>
  505. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;narrow&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  506. <td>A narrow (or hankaku) compatibility character.</td>
  507. </tr>
  508. <tr>
  509. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;small&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  510. <td>A small variant form (CNS compatibility).</td>
  511. </tr>
  512. <tr>
  513. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;square&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  514. <td>A CJK squared font variant.</td>
  515. </tr>
  516. <tr>
  517. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;fraction&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  518. <td>A vulgar fraction form.</td>
  519. </tr>
  520. <tr>
  521. <td ALIGN="CENTER">&lt;compat&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
  522. <td>Otherwise unspecified compatibility character.</td>
  523. </tr>
  524. </table>
  525. <p><b>Reminder: </b>There is a difference between decomposition and decomposition mapping.
  526. The decomposition mappings are defined in the UnicodeData, while the decomposition (also
  527. termed &quot;full decomposition&quot;) is defined in Chapter 3 to use those mappings
  528. <i>
  529. recursively.</i>
  530. <ul>
  531. <li>The canonical decomposition is formed by recursively applying the canonical mappings,
  532. then applying the canonical reordering algorithm. </li>
  533. <li>The compatibility decomposition is formed by recursively applying the canonical <em>and</em>
  534. compatibility mappings, then applying the canonical reordering algorithm. </li>
  535. </ul>
  536. <h3><a NAME="Canonical Combining Classes"></a>Canonical Combining Classes</h3>
  537. <table BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="2" CELLPADDING="0">
  538. <tr>
  539. <th><p ALIGN="LEFT">Value</th>
  540. <th><p ALIGN="LEFT">Description</th>
  541. </tr>
  542. <tr>
  543. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">0:</td>
  544. <td>Spacing, split, enclosing, reordrant, and Tibetan subjoined</td>
  545. </tr>
  546. <tr>
  547. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">1:</td>
  548. <td>Overlays and interior</td>
  549. </tr>
  550. <tr>
  551. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">7:</td>
  552. <td>Nuktas</td>
  553. </tr>
  554. <tr>
  555. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">8:</td>
  556. <td>Hiragana/Katakana voicing marks</td>
  557. </tr>
  558. <tr>
  559. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">9:</td>
  560. <td>Viramas</td>
  561. </tr>
  562. <tr>
  563. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">10:</td>
  564. <td>Start of fixed position classes</td>
  565. </tr>
  566. <tr>
  567. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">199:</td>
  568. <td>End of fixed position classes</td>
  569. </tr>
  570. <tr>
  571. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">200:</td>
  572. <td>Below left attached</td>
  573. </tr>
  574. <tr>
  575. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">202:</td>
  576. <td>Below attached</td>
  577. </tr>
  578. <tr>
  579. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">204:</td>
  580. <td>Below right attached</td>
  581. </tr>
  582. <tr>
  583. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">208:</td>
  584. <td>Left attached (reordrant around single base character)</td>
  585. </tr>
  586. <tr>
  587. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">210:</td>
  588. <td>Right attached</td>
  589. </tr>
  590. <tr>
  591. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">212:</td>
  592. <td>Above left attached</td>
  593. </tr>
  594. <tr>
  595. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">214:</td>
  596. <td>Above attached</td>
  597. </tr>
  598. <tr>
  599. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">216:</td>
  600. <td>Above right attached</td>
  601. </tr>
  602. <tr>
  603. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">218:</td>
  604. <td>Below left</td>
  605. </tr>
  606. <tr>
  607. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">220:</td>
  608. <td>Below</td>
  609. </tr>
  610. <tr>
  611. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">222:</td>
  612. <td>Below right</td>
  613. </tr>
  614. <tr>
  615. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">224:</td>
  616. <td>Left (reordrant around single base character)</td>
  617. </tr>
  618. <tr>
  619. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">226:</td>
  620. <td>Right</td>
  621. </tr>
  622. <tr>
  623. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">228:</td>
  624. <td>Above left</td>
  625. </tr>
  626. <tr>
  627. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">230:</td>
  628. <td>Above</td>
  629. </tr>
  630. <tr>
  631. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">232:</td>
  632. <td>Above right</td>
  633. </tr>
  634. <tr>
  635. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">233:</td>
  636. <td>Double below</td>
  637. </tr>
  638. <tr>
  639. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">234:</td>
  640. <td>Double above</td>
  641. </tr>
  642. <tr>
  643. <td ALIGN="RIGHT">240:</td>
  644. <td>Below (iota subscript)</td>
  645. </tr>
  646. </table>
  647. <p><strong>Note: </strong>some of the combining classes in this list do not currently have
  648. members but are specified here for completeness.</p>
  649. <h3><a NAME="Decompositions and Normalization"></a>Decompositions and Normalization</h3>
  650. <p>Decomposition is specified in Chapter 3. <a href="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr15/"><i>Unicode Technical Report #15:
  651. Normalization Forms</i></a> specifies the interaction between decomposition and normalization. The
  652. most up-to-date version is found on <a HREF="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr15/">http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr15/</a>.
  653. That report specifies how the decompositions defined in UnicodeData.txt are used to derive
  654. normalized forms of Unicode text.</p>
  655. <p>Note that as of the 2.1.9 update of the Unicode Character Database, the decompositions
  656. in the UnicodeData.txt file can be used to recursively derive the full decomposition in
  657. canonical order, without the need to separately apply canonical reordering. However,
  658. canonical reordering of combining character sequences must still be applied in
  659. decomposition when normalizing source text which contains any combining marks.</p>
  660. <h3><a NAME="Case Mappings"></a>Case Mappings</h3>
  661. <p>The case mapping is an informative, default mapping. Case itself, on the other hand,
  662. has normative status. Thus, for example, 0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A is normatively
  663. uppercase, but its lowercase mapping the 0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A is informative. The
  664. reason for this is that case can be considered to be an inherent property of a particular
  665. character (and is usually, but not always, derivable from the presence of the terms
  666. &quot;CAPITAL&quot; or &quot;SMALL&quot; in the character name), but case mappings between
  667. characters are occasionally influenced by local conventions. For example, certain
  668. languages, such as Turkish, German, French, or Greek may have small deviations from the
  669. default mappings listed in UnicodeData.</p>
  670. <p>In addition to uppercase and lowercase, because of the inclusion of certain composite
  671. characters for compatibility, such as 01F1 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER DZ, there is a third case,
  672. called <i>titlecase</i>, which is used where the first letter of a word is to be
  673. capitalized (e.g. UPPERCASE, Titlecase, lowercase). An example of such a titlecase letter
  675. <p>The uppercase, titlecase and lowercase fields are only included for characters that
  676. have a single corresponding character of that type. Composite characters (such as
  677. &quot;339D SQUARE CM&quot;) that do not have a single corresponding character of that type
  678. can be cased by decomposition.</p>
  679. <p>For compatibility with existing parsers, UnicodeData only contains case mappings for
  680. characters where they are one-to-one mappings; it also omits information about
  681. context-sensitive case mappings. Information about these special cases can be found in a
  682. separate data file, SpecialCasing.txt,
  683. which has been added starting with the 2.1.8 update to the Unicode data files.
  684. SpecialCasing.txt contains additional informative case mappings that are either not
  685. one-to-one or which are context-sensitive.</p>
  686. <h2><a NAME="Property Invariants"></a>Property Invariants</h2>
  687. <p>Values in UnicodeData.txt are subject to correction as errors are found; however, some
  688. characteristics of the categories themselves can be considered invariants. Applications
  689. may wish to take these invariants into account when choosing how to implement character
  690. properties. The following is a partial list of known invariants for the Unicode Character
  691. Database.</p>
  692. <h4>Database Fields</h4>
  693. <ul>
  694. <li>The number of fields in UnicodeData.txt is fixed. </li>
  695. <li>The order of the fields is also fixed. <ul>
  696. <li>Any additional information about character properties to be added in the future will
  697. appear in separate data tables, rather than being added on to the existing table or by
  698. subdivision or reinterpretation of existing fields. </li>
  699. </ul>
  700. </li>
  701. </ul>
  702. <h4>General Category</h4>
  703. <ul>
  704. <li>There will never be more than 32 General Category values. <ul>
  705. <li>It is very unlikely that the Unicode Technical Committee will subdivide the General
  706. Category partition any further, since that can cause implementations to misbehave. Because
  707. the General Category is limited to 32 values, 5 bits can be used to represent the
  708. information, and a 32-bit integer can be used as a bitmask to represent arbitrary sets of
  709. categories. </li>
  710. </ul>
  711. </li>
  712. </ul>
  713. <h4>Combining Classes</h4>
  714. <ul>
  715. <li>Combining classes are limited to the values 0 to 255. <ul>
  716. <li>In practice, there are far fewer than 256 values used. Implementations may take
  717. advantage of this fact for compression, since only the ordering of the non-zero values
  718. matters for the Canonical Reordering Algorithm. It is possible for up to 256 values to be
  719. used in the future; however, UTC decisions in the future may restrict the number of values
  720. to 128, since this has implementation advantages. [Signed bytes can be used without
  721. widening to ints in Java, for example.] </li>
  722. </ul>
  723. </li>
  724. <li>All characters other than those of General Category M* have the combining class 0. <ul>
  725. <li>Currently, all characters other than those of General Category Mn have the value 0.
  726. However, some characters of General Category Me or Mc may be given non-zero values in the
  727. future. </li>
  728. <li>The precise values above the value 0 are not invariant--only the relative ordering is
  729. considered normative. For example, it is not guaranteed in future versions that the class
  730. of U+05B4 will be precisely 14. </li>
  731. </ul>
  732. </li>
  733. </ul>
  734. <h4>Case</h4>
  735. <ul>
  736. <li>Characters of type Lu, Lt, or Ll are called <i>cased</i>. All characters with an Upper,
  737. Lower, or Titlecase mapping are cased characters. <ul>
  738. <li>However, characters with the General Categories of Lu, Ll, or Lt may not always have
  739. case mappings, and case mappings may vary by locale. (See
  740. ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/SpecialCasing.txt). </li>
  741. </ul>
  742. </li>
  743. </ul>
  744. <h4>Canonical Decomposition</h4>
  745. <ul>
  746. <li>Canonical mappings are always in canonical order. </li>
  747. <li>Canonical mappings have only the first of a pair possibly further decomposing. </li>
  748. <li>Canonical decompositions are &quot;transparent&quot; to other character data: <ul>
  749. <li><tt>BIDI(a) = BIDI(principal(canonicalDecomposition(a))</tt> </li>
  750. <li><tt>Category(a) = Category(principal(canonicalDecomposition(a))</tt> </li>
  751. <li><tt>CombiningClass(a) = CombiningClass(principal(canonicalDecomposition(a))</tt><br>
  752. where principal(a) is the first character not of type Mn, or the first character if all
  753. characters are of type Mn. </li>
  754. </ul>
  755. </li>
  756. <li>However, because there are sometimes missing case pairs, and because of some legacy
  757. characters, it is only generally true that: <ul>
  758. <li><tt>upper(canonicalDecomposition(a)) = canonicalDecomposition(upper(a))</tt> </li>
  759. <li><tt>lower(canonicalDecomposition(a)) = canonicalDecomposition(lower(a))</tt> </li>
  760. <li><tt>title(canonicalDecomposition(a)) = canonicalDecomposition(title(a))</tt> </li>
  761. </ul>
  762. </li>
  763. </ul>
  764. <h2><a NAME="Modification History"></a>Modification History</h2>
  765. <p>This section provides a summary of the changes between update versions of the Unicode
  766. Standard.</p>
  767. <h3><a href="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions/enumeratedversions.html#Unicode 3.0.0"> Unicode 3.0.0</a></h3>
  768. <p>Modifications made for Version 3.0.0 of UnicodeData.txt include many new characters and
  769. a number of property changes. These are summarized in Appendex D of <em>The Unicode
  770. Standard, Version 3.0.</em></p>
  771. <h3><a HREF="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions/enumeratedversions.html#Unicode 2.1.9">Unicode 2.1.9</a> </h3>
  772. <p>Modifications made for Version 2.1.9 of UnicodeData.txt include:
  773. <ul>
  774. <li>Corrected combining class for U+05AE HEBREW ACCENT ZINOR. </li>
  775. <li>Corrected combining class for U+20E1 COMBINING LEFT RIGHT ARROW ABOVE </li>
  776. <li>Corrected combining class for U+0F35 and U+0F37 to 220. </li>
  777. <li>Corrected combining class for U+0F71 to 129. </li>
  778. <li>Added a decomposition for U+0F0C TIBETAN MARK DELIMITER TSHEG BSTAR. </li>
  779. <li>Added&nbsp; decompositions for several Greek symbol letters: U+03D0..U+03D2, U+03D5,
  780. U+03D6, U+03F0..U+03F2. </li>
  781. <li>Removed&nbsp; decompositions from the conjoining jamo block: U+1100..U+11F8. </li>
  782. <li>Changes to decomposition mappings for some Tibetan vowels for consistency in
  783. normalization. (U+0F71, U+0F73, U+0F77, U+0F79, U+0F81) </li>
  784. <li>Updated the decomposition mappings for several Vietnamese characters with two diacritics
  785. (U+1EAC, U+1EAD, U+1EB6, U+1EB7, U+1EC6, U+1EC7, U+1ED8, U+1ED9), so that the recursive
  786. decomposition can be generated directly in canonically reordered form (not a normative
  787. change). </li>
  788. <li>Updated the decomposition mappings for several Arabic compatibility characters involving
  789. shadda (U+FC5E..U+FC62, U+FCF2..U+FCF4), and two Latin characters (U+1E1C, U+1E1D), so
  790. that the decompositions are generated directly in canonically reordered form (not a
  791. normative change). </li>
  792. <li>Changed BIDI category for: U+00A0 NO-BREAK SPACE, U+2007 FIGURE SPACE, U+2028 LINE
  793. SEPARATOR. </li>
  794. <li>Changed BIDI category for extenders of General Category Lm: U+3005, U+3021..U+3035,
  795. U+FF9E, U+FF9F. </li>
  796. <li>Changed General Category and BIDI category for the Greek numeral signs: U+0374, U+0375. </li>
  797. <li>Corrected General Category for U+FFE8 HALFWIDTH FORMS LIGHT VERTICAL. </li>
  798. <li>Added Unicode 1.0 names for many Tibetan characters (informative). </li>
  799. </ul>
  800. <h3><a HREF="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions/enumeratedversions.html#Unicode 2.1.8">Unicode 2.1.8</a> </h3>
  801. <p>Modifications made for Version 2.1.8 of UnicodeData.txt include:
  802. <ul>
  803. <li>Added combining class 240 for U+0345 COMBINING GREEK YPOGEGRAMMENI so that
  804. decompositions involving iota subscript are derivable directly in canonically reordered
  805. form; this also has a bearing on simplification of casing of polytonic Greek. </li>
  806. <li>Changes in decompositions related to Greek tonos. These result from the clarification
  807. that monotonic Greek &quot;tonos&quot; should be equated with U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE,
  808. rather than with U+030D COMBINING VERTICAL LINE ABOVE. (All Greek characters in the Greek
  809. block involving &quot;tonos&quot;; some Greek characters in the polytonic Greek in the
  810. 1FXX block.) </li>
  811. <li>Changed decompositions involving dialytika tonos. (U+0390, U+03B0) </li>
  812. <li>Changed ternary decompositions to binary. (U+0CCB, U+FB2C, U+FB2D) These changes
  813. simplify normalization. </li>
  814. <li>Removed canonical decomposition for Latin Candrabindu. (U+0310) </li>
  815. <li>Corrected error in canonical decomposition for U+1FF4. </li>
  816. <li>Added compatibility decompositions to clarify collation tables. (U+2100, U+2101, U+2105,
  817. U+2106, U+1E9A) </li>
  818. <li>A series of general category changes to assist the convergence of of Unicode definition
  819. of identifier with ISO TR 10176: <ul>
  820. <li>So &gt; Lo: U+0950, U+0AD0, U+0F00, U+0F88..U+0F8B </li>
  821. <li>Po &gt; Lo: U+0E2F, U+0EAF, U+3006 </li>
  822. <li>Lm &gt; Sk: U+309B, U+309C </li>
  823. <li>Po &gt; Pc: U+30FB, U+FF65 </li>
  824. <li>Ps/Pe &gt; Mn: U+0F3E, U+0F3F </li>
  825. </ul>
  826. </li>
  827. <li>A series of bidi property changes for consistency. <ul>
  828. <li>L &gt; ET: U+09F2, U+09F3 </li>
  829. <li>ON &gt; L: U+3007 </li>
  830. <li>L &gt; ON: U+0F3A..U+0F3D, U+037E, U+0387 </li>
  831. </ul>
  832. </li>
  833. <li>Add case mapping: U+01A6 &lt;-&gt; U+0280 </li>
  834. <li>Updated symmetric swapping value for guillemets: U+00AB, U+00BB, U+2039, U+203A. </li>
  835. <li>Changes to combining class values. Most Indic fixed position class non-spacing marks
  836. were changed to combining class 0. This fixes some inconsistencies in how canonical
  837. reordering would apply to Indic scripts, including Tibetan. Indic interacting top/bottom
  838. fixed position classes were merged into single (non-zero) classes as part of this change.
  839. Tibetan subjoined consonants are changed from combining class 6 to combining class 0. Thai
  840. pinthu (U+0E3A) moved to combining class 9. Moved two Devanagari stress marks into generic
  841. above and below combining classes (U+0951, U+0952). </li>
  842. <li>Corrected placement of semicolon near symmetric swapping field. (U+FA0E, etc., scattered
  843. positions to U+FA29) </li>
  844. </ul>
  845. <h3>Version 2.1.7</h3>
  846. <p><i>This version was for internal change tracking only, and never publicly released.</i></p>
  847. <h3>Version 2.1.6</h3>
  848. <p><i>This version was for internal change tracking only, and never publicly released.</i></p>
  849. <h3><a HREF="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions/enumeratedversions.html#Unicode 2.1.5">Unicode 2.1.5</a> </h3>
  850. <p>Modifications made for Version 2.1.5 of UnicodeData.txt include:
  851. <ul>
  852. <li>Changed decomposition for U+FF9E and U+FF9F so that correct collation weighting will
  853. automatically result from the canonical equivalences. </li>
  854. <li>Removed canonical decompositions for U+04D4, U+04D5, U+04D8, U+04D9, U+04E0, U+04E1,
  855. U+04E8, U+04E9 (the implication being that no canonical equivalence is claimed between
  856. these 8 characters and similar Latin letters), and updated 4 canonical decompositions for
  857. U+04DB, U+04DC, U+04EA, U+04EB to reflect the implied difference in the base character. </li>
  858. <li>Added Pi, and Pf categories and assigned the relevant quotation marks to those
  859. categories, based on the Unicode Technical Corrigendum on Quotation Characters. </li>
  860. <li>Updating of many bidi properties, following the advice of the ad hoc committee on bidi,
  861. and to make the bidi properties of compatibility characters more consistent. </li>
  862. <li>Changed category of several Tibetan characters: U+0F3E, U+0F3F, U+0F88..U+0F8B to make
  863. them non-combining, reflecting the combined opinion of Tibetan experts. </li>
  864. <li>Added case mapping for U+03F2. </li>
  865. <li>Corrected case mapping for U+0275. </li>
  866. <li>Added titlecase mappings for U+03D0, U+03D1, U+03D5, U+03D6, U+03F0.. U+03F2. </li>
  867. <li>Corrected compatibility label for U+2121. </li>
  868. <li>Add specific entries for all the CJK compatibility ideographs, U+F900..U+FA2D, so the
  869. canonical decomposition for each (the URO character it is equivalent to) can be carried in
  870. the database. </li>
  871. </ul>
  872. <h3>Version 2.1.4</h3>
  873. <p><i>This version was for internal change tracking only, and never publicly released.</i></p>
  874. <h3>Version 2.1.3</h3>
  875. <p><i>This version was for internal change tracking only, and never publicly released.</i></p>
  876. <h3><a HREF="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions/enumeratedversions.html#Unicode 2.1.2">Unicode 2.1.2</a> </h3>
  877. <p>Modifications made in updating UnicodeData.txt to Version 2.1.2 for the Unicode
  878. Standard, Version 2.1 (from Version 2.0) include:
  879. <ul>
  880. <li>Added two characters (U+20AC and U+FFFC). </li>
  881. <li>Amended bidi properties for U+0026, U+002E, U+0040, U+2007. </li>
  882. <li>Corrected case mappings for U+018E, U+019F, U+01DD, U+0258, U+0275, U+03C2, U+1E9B. </li>
  883. <li>Changed combining order class for U+0F71. </li>
  884. <li>Corrected canonical decompositions for U+0F73, U+1FBE. </li>
  885. <li>Changed decomposition for U+FB1F from compatibility to canonical. </li>
  886. <li>Added compatibility decompositions for U+FBE8, U+FBE9, U+FBF9..U+FBFB. </li>
  887. <li>Corrected compatibility decompositions for U+2469, U+246A, U+3358. </li>
  888. </ul>
  889. <h3>Version 2.1.1</h3>
  890. <p><i>This version was for internal change tracking only, and never publicly released.</i></p>
  891. <h3><a HREF="http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions/enumeratedversions.html#Unicode 2.0.0">Unicode 2.0.0</a> </h3>
  892. <p>The modifications made in updating UnicodeData.txt for the Unicode
  893. Standard, Version 2.0 include:
  894. <ul>
  895. <li>Fixed decompositions with TONOS to use correct NSM: 030D. </li>
  896. <li>Removed old Hangul Syllables; mapping to new characters are in a separate table. </li>
  897. <li>Marked compatibility decompositions with additional tags. </li>
  898. <li>Changed old tag names for clarity. </li>
  899. <li>Revision of decompositions to use first-level decomposition, instead of maximal
  900. decomposition. </li>
  901. <li>Correction of all known errors in decompositions from earlier versions. </li>
  902. <li>Added control code names (as old Unicode names). </li>
  903. <li>Added Hangul Jamo decompositions. </li>
  904. <li>Added Number category to match properties list in book. </li>
  905. <li>Fixed categories of Koranic Arabic marks. </li>
  906. <li>Fixed categories of precomposed characters to match decomposition where possible. </li>
  907. <li>Added Hebrew cantillation marks and the Tibetan script. </li>
  908. <li>Added place holders for ranges such as CJK Ideographic Area and the Private Use Area. </li>
  909. <li>Added categories Me, Sk, Pc, Nl, Cs, Cf, and rectified a number of mistakes in the
  910. database. </li>
  911. </ul>
  912. </body>
  913. </html>